In the United Kingdom, as in most other countries, virtually all published works, whether literary, photographic, illustrative, filmed or computer-generated, are copyright. The period of copyright generally lasts until 70 years after the death of the author or creator of the material. There is no need to register copyright. Copyright ownership is indicated under international conventions by the C-in-a-circle symbol © followed by the name of the copyright holder and the date of first publication. The copyright owner may sell licences for a wide variety of possible uses.The listing below is comprehensive but by no means exhaustive.

Serial right
a licence to publish in a ‘serial’ publication – a newspaper, journal or magazine.

First British serial right
a licence to publish for the first time in any British ‘serial’ publication.

First EU serial right
a licence to publish for the first time in any European Union serial publication.

First US serial right
a licence to publish for the first time in any United States serial publication.

First World right
a licence to publish for the first time in any serial publication in the world.

Second serial right
a licence to publish in a serial for the second time in a defined area.

Syndication right
a licence to re-sell copyright material in a defined area on behalf of the copyright owner. Income from syndication is conventionally split between the parties, with the author receiving at least 50 per cent of the gross income.

Electronic archive right
(as part of original publication) a licence to store material electronically for publisher’s reference and archival purposes only, not including copying or further publication without the author’s permission.

Electronic publication right
a licence to publish in electronic form; this can include or comprise publication (eg as part of a commercial database) on floppy disc and/or CD-ROM (either as a ‘serial’ or one-off), or on the Internet or an Intranet. Except for Internet use, any licence may be restricted to a defined area or duration.

Internet publication right
a licence to publish electronically on the Internet or World-Wide Web (WWW); this is always a world right.

Intranet publication right
a licence to publish on an electronic computer-linked system analogous to the Internet but confined to a single company or other defined group.

Book right
a licence to publish in a (non-serial) book; this may be limited to a defined area.

Full Copyright (‘All Rights’)
a combination of all possible licences PLUS the exclusive right to issue licences to others. Full Copyright is seldom needed by a publisher and should normally be retained by the author or creator of the material. It is clear that the minimum appropriate payment for the purchase of full copyright must be the maximum possible payment for any conceivable single use, though in some circumstances double the payment for an envisaged use might be acceptable.

Moral rights
the rights of an author or creator to protect his or her reputation. They include the right to be named as author, the right not to have another person named as author, and the right not to have material altered in a way derogatory to the reputation of the author.

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